When oversupply occurs in the market, it means that there is an excess of production capacity. The market has entered the buyer's era, and buyers face a variety of choices and become picky. At the same time, the market's competitive landscape has also changed, and the extremely fierce competition has made the industry a Red Sea. The traditional "product-oriented" marketing model has fallen into a fierce price war, and the company's life is getting more and more difficult. Many companies are looking for breakthroughs in marketing. As we all know, the nature of competition between enterprises lies in the competition for customer resources. As a result, the era of the customer economy has arrived. The marketing model has also changed to "customer-oriented". Customer relationship management is proposed in this context.
I. Characteristics, Status Quo and Problems of Industrial Product Marketing
(I) Characteristics of Industrial Product Marketing
Industrial products belong to bulk trade and refer to the general term for products and services purchased by industrial and commercial enterprises, governments, or public institutions for production, sales, maintenance, or research and development. According to the different uses of the product, it is divided into 6 categories, which are raw materials, equipment, assemblies, parts, consumable supplies and services. It can be seen from the definition that the object of industrial product purchase is the organizational market. Compared with the consumer market, it has its distinctive characteristics: 1. The purchaser of industrial products is a rational and professional procurement expert. The product, technical indicators, and industry price Such information is fully grasped and has a complete supplier evaluation index system. 2. The customers of industrial products are industrial customers. The number of customers is not large, but the purchase volume is large. At the same time, under normal circumstances, repeated purchases are repeated. 3. The geographical area of customers for industrial products is concentrated. Within the same region, customers often come together due to regional industrial clusters. 4. A series of stakeholders are involved in the purchase process of industrial customers. This decision-making process is long and full of variables.
(II) Status and Problems of Industrial Product Marketing
Due to the characteristics of the industrial product market, the current status of industrial product marketing is determined by focusing on personnel sales, strengthening technological innovation and value-added services ; attaching importance to relationship marketing, and highlighting expert and consultant sales. However, with the change of the internal and external environment in which the company is located, industrial product marketing is facing many problems: 1. The industry is intensified in competition, and the supply of products is diversified, so that customers' choice opportunities increase and customer loyalty decreases. 2. The development of technology and the maturity of customers make the purchase standard upgrade from price and performance to brand and service. Customers' needs are personalized. 3. Customers become competitive resources. The customer is the basic factor of corporate profits, and the customer's knowledge of products and services can guide improvement.
The problems faced in the marketing of industrial products are driving companies to think about how to improve customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, how to find and cultivate the most valuable customers, and thus establish a competitive advantage. The research in the theoretical world and the practice of successful companies have provided us with a solution-implementing customer relationship management.
The Connotation of Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
The origin of the theory of customer relationship management and the United States in the 1980s was first proposed by the Gartner Group. With the development of theoretical research and information technology, scholars have given it unique interpretations from different angles. But its core ideal is to meet customer needs, create customer value, and improve customer satisfaction and loyalty.
(A) customer relationship management is first of all a management concept
Customer relationship management emphasizes a customer-centric strategy, based on meeting customer needs, creating and realizing customer value, and establishing and maintaining partnerships with customers.
(II) Customer relationship management is a management mechanism
In order to implement the customer-centric strategy at the implementation level, it is necessary to integrate the existing business processes, establish customer-centric business processes and teams, and improve the company's ability to respond to the market and meet the needs of individual customers.
(C) customer relationship management is an advanced management information technology
Customer relationship management is a highly integrated system of databases, e-commerce, and artificial intelligence, which provides support for corporate sales, customer service, and decision-making.
Realistic application cases tell us: Many companies recognize that the implementation of CRM is the previous set of information systems, which can improve business efficiency. However, these companies often end in failure. CRM is not the same as pure application software, but also the optimization of corporate strategies and processes. Provide personalized products and services based on the analysis of existing customer values to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.
Strategies for implementing customer relationship management in industrial product marketing
Aiming at the problems in industrial product marketing and combining the characteristics of industrial product marketing, the specific strategies for implementing CRM in marketing management are as follows:
(I) Customer identification
Before implementing CRM, the first problem is to figure out who the customer is. The buyers of industrial products are industrial customers. Looking at the entire industrial product value chain and the internal value chain of an enterprise, customers can be divided into internal customers and external customers. Internal customers refer to employees of the company, external customers refer to direct and indirect customers, and indirect customers can be understood as customers of direct customers. At the same time, the meaning of customer's understanding has risen to the organizational level of the company, not an individual dealing with marketers. Therefore, the development of marketing work depends on the long-term perspective, and sometimes jumps to look at the problem. In actual marketing, the focus is still on direct customers.
The first step in customer identification is the collection of customer information. For industrial products, the number of customers is limited, and it is easier to archive customer information. Recording of customer information is the basis of customer segmentation. The customer information file can be divided into three parts: ① basic customer information, including customer name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail address, web site, organizational structure and decision structure of the client company, faction structure, decision process, who supports and who Oppose us, who is neutral, who is the ultimate decision maker, who is the influencer, who is the executor, who is the negotiator, and the age, health, education, background, personality, ability, family situation, hobbies, etc. of the final decision maker Information ; ② customer business trends, including product structure, market sales, financial status, credit status, competitors, business strategic planning, etc .; ③ historical customer transaction status, involving transaction volume, unit price, marketing costs, profit, and customer complaints Wait. After the statistical analysis of the total information, customers can be segmented to develop different marketing strategies.
The second step in customer identification is customer segmentation. The dimensions of customer segmentation have multiple standards. Different scholars have proposed different models, but they are all based on customer value. Customer value can be divided into current value and future value. The current value can be calculated from historical transactions, and the future value is the value that customers will bring to the enterprise in the future. It cannot be measured with clear indicators, but relevant indicators such as customer satisfaction and customer loyalty can be used for reference. The indicators for customer segmentation proposed in this article are combined with their own work experience. The current value reference indicators are as follows: gross profit, sales volume, marketing costs (sales discount + financial expenses); future value reference indicators are as follows: customer industry status, cooperation period ,customer satisfaction. For each indicator, a weight and a scoring standard are given, and the score of each customer is comprehensively calculated, so as to assign a rating to the customer.
(II) Customer Segmentation Management
Pareto's rule of 28 tells us that 80% of a company 's profits are created by 20% of its customers. Different customers have different contribution values to the enterprise. In order to maximize the value of the enterprise, customers must be segmented and managed to adopt different marketing policies. Starting from the needs of industrial product customers, it presents diversity and individuality, which determines the necessity of customer segmentation management. According to the above customer segmentation criteria, this article divides customers into two groups: general customers and strategic customers. General customers have created 20% of profits. For these customers, maintain existing service items and marketing policies, and strictly control the number of sales visits and service costs. Strategic customers are the main source of corporate profits. On the basis of existing services, personalized value-added services are added. Account managers should visit on a regular basis and regularly organize exchanges between corporate executives. The service starts at the pre-sale, runs at the sale, and finally after-sale, and there are some preferential policies in marketing.
(3) Cultivation of customer loyalty
The cost of developing new customers is several times that of maintaining old customers. Industrial customers are more concerned about product quality and supplier qualification. However, fierce competition makes customers highly price sensitive. Under this premise, stable customer relationships Established barriers to entry for peers and increased conversion costs. Customer loyalty is particularly important, and it is a guarantee of participating in competition to win. Customer loyalty can be cultivated. This article points out several ways: ① Improve the overall value of the product. The product value hierarchy theory tells us that products not only emphasize the core level, but also the expectation level and the potential level. While satisfying the basic attributes of customers, industrial products must strengthen the functions of the external level. Through the continuous innovation of product innovation, the level of expectation becomes the core level, and the potential level becomes the level of expectation. In this way, the product has become the customer's choice and first choice. ② From selling products to selling services, providing different solutions for different customers. Based on the segmentation of customers, for general customers, help them grow, provide support and suggestions for their development in a timely manner, and help them improve their operating conditions. For strategic customers, we provide customized personalized models, establish partnerships with customers, jointly develop new products and new application markets, and share some resources of the enterprise. ③In response to the industrial cluster phenomenon of industrial product customers, offices and warehouses are set up in industrial cluster areas to better serve customers and reduce their inventory costs.
Analysis of key elements of implementing CRM
(I) Formulate a customer-centric strategy
The first step for an enterprise to implement CRM is to formulate a CRM strategy, that is, to formulate a business strategy centered on the customer. All activities of the enterprise center on satisfying the customer's current needs and clearly understanding future needs, improving customer satisfaction, and establishing customer loyalty. Prior to implementation, analyze the company's external environment such as sales environment and service environment, and analyze the company's internal environment such as core competitiveness, value chain and customer relationship dynamic management chain, and internal resource integration capabilities to ensure CRM implementation Success rate.
(II) Shaping a customer-centric corporate culture
Moulding a customer-centric corporate culture helps promote customer-centric values, thereby motivating employees to think in terms of customers when dealing with problems in the process of serving customers, and avoiding short-sighted behavior. Of course, employees are also customers of the company. Only satisfied employees can better serve customers, which has also promoted reform of human resources in employee training and performance evaluation.
(III) Reorganization of customer-centric business processes
The traditional marketing business process is guided by the function of marketing activities, and the connection between marketing, sales, and service is gapped. The reorganization of customer-centric business processes is the seamless integration of the original divided business processes and the sharing of resources. Form a product matrix team based on the product variety. At the same time, the "customer-oriented" concept of customer relationship management permeates the business process of the enterprise and each department, and requires the various departments of the enterprise to operate in concert.
The application of customer relationship management has just started in industrial products enterprises. In order to better serve customers and enhance customer value, it is important to establish a customer-centric management philosophy and management mechanism. The CRM application system is only a tool, which can better serve the company's marketing work under the customer-oriented concept and process design.